Specialisation presupposes centralization?

Thus Lenin wrote of the party's need "to distribute the thousand-and-one minute functions of their organizational work," complained of "technical defects," and called for the unification of "all these tiny fractions into one whole." As he concluded, "specialization necessarily presupposes centralization, and in its turn imperatively calls for it."

V. I. Lenin, What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement (New York: International Publishers, 1929) pp. 120-21 (via seeing-like-a-statech. 5)

Is this true?

Within ecosystems—certainly not.

Within organisms—possibly, to a certain extent.

Within high modernist states—true to the extent the social fiction affirms it.


seeing-like-a-state Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale University Press. ↩︎ 1